Other Languages‎ > ‎

Braille

Braille is not a language, it is representation of the alphabet or a character set.  However, Braille Grade 2 is a set of about 250 abbreviations for common English letter combinations or very common words.  Selected items are given either a non-standard Braille character or a short combination of standard and / or non-standard Braille characters.  There is also a Braille Grade 3 with more abbreviations.  This section deals with Braille Grade 2.

In order to remember Braille characters, I first needed to be able to remember the possible combinations of Braille dots.  Each Braille character has two columns and potentially three dots in each column.  Most people use numbers to represent the dot positions: 1 is the top of the left column, 2 in the middle, 3 at the bottom; 4 is the top of the right column, 5 in the middle, and 6 at the bottom.  Other people have used the base-8 "octal" numbering system: 8, 16, 32, 1, 2, 4.

I have chosen to use Latin letter combinations to describe the patterns that I see in each column of dots.  I feel this closely resembles the original design of the Braille alphabet.  One or two letters represent the value in one column.  Two columns' letters are combined to represent the whole character.  Commas are used to separate characters within a word.

a - dot 1
ae - dots 1,2
b - dot 2
be - dots 2,3
c - dot 3
k - dots 1,3
l - dots 1,2,3
z - no dots


cl,bae - (#0)
cl,a - (#1)
cl,ae - (#2)
cl,aa - (#3)
cl,aae - (#4)
cl,ab - (#5)
cl,aea - (#6)
cl,aeae - (#7)
cl,aeb - (#8)
cl,ba - (#9)
a - a
ll - acute letter e - (dot 1 2 3 4 5 6)
cae - ash (ae) - (dot 3 4 5)
cb,cb - asterisk (*)
ae - b
aa - c
zc - capital sign - (dot 6)
lk - cedilla c - (dot 1 2 3 4 6)
ac - circumflex letter a - (dot 1 6)
aec - circumflex letter e - (dot 1 2 6)
ak - circumflex letter i - (dot 1 4 6)
al - circumflex letter o - (dot 1 4 5 6)
abe - circumflex letter u - (dot 1 5 6)
bebe,zc - close parenthesis ")"
cbe - close quotation mark (") - (dot 3 5 6)
bb - colon (:) - (dot 2 5)
ea - comma - (dot 2)
aae - d
cc,cc - dash (--)
zk - decimal point (.) - (dot 4 6)
bebe - dollar sign ($) - (dot 2 3 5 6)
cc,cc,cc,cc - double dash (----)
ab - e
beb - exclamation mark (!) - (dot 2 3 5)
aea - f
ca - forward slash (/) - (dot 3 4)
aeae - g
lbe - grave letter a - (dot 1 2 3 5 6)
bek - grave letter e - (dot 2 3 4 6)
ca - grave letter i - (dot 3 4)
ck - grave letter o - (dot 3 4 6)
bel - grave letter u - (dot 2 3 4 5 6)
aeb - h
cc - hyphen (-) - (dot 3 6)
ba - i
zk - italic sign - (dot 4 6)
bae - j
k - k
l - l
zbe - letter sign - (dot 5 6)
zae - literal index - (dot 4 5)
ka - m
kae - n
cl - numeral sign - (dot 3 4 5 6)
za - numerical index sign - (dot 4)
kb - o
zc,bebe - open parenthesis "("
bec - open quotation mark (") - (dot 2 3 6)
la - p
bbe - period (.) - (dot 2 5 6)
lae - q
bec - question mark (?) - (dot 2 3 6)
bea - s
be - semicolon (;) - (dot 2 3)
cz - single quote (') - (dot 3)
beae - t
kc - u
cae - umlaut letter a - (dot 3 4 5)
aek - umlaut letter e - (dot 1 2 4 6)
ael - umlaut letter i - (dot 1 2 4 5 6)
bk - umlaut letter o - (dot 2 4 6)
aebe - umlaut letter u - (dot 1 2 5 6)
lc - v
bl - w
kk - x
kl - y
kbe - z



cl,bae - (#0)
cl,a - (#1)
cl,ae - (#2)
cl,aa - (#3)
cl,aae - (#4)
cl,ab - (#5)
cl,aea - (#6)
cl,aeae - (#7)
cl,aeb - (#8)
cl,ba - (#9)
a - a
a,ae - about - ab
a,ae,lc - above - abv
a,aa - according - ac
a,aa,lb - across - acr
ll - acute letter e - (dot 1 2 3 4 5 6)
a,aea - after - af
a,aea,kae - afternoon - afn
a,aea,bl - afterward - afw
a,aeae - again - ag
a,aeae,ca - against - ag(st)
c,kl - ally - (dot 6)y
a,l,lb - almost - alm
a,l,lb - already - alr
a,l,ka - also - al
a,l,al - although - al(th)
a,l,beae - altogether - alt
a,l,bl - always - alw
k,ab - ance - (dot 4 6)e
lk - and - (dot 1 2 3 4 6)
cae - ar - (dot 3 4 5)
kbe - as - (dot 1 3 5 6)
kbe - as - z
cae - ash (ae) - (dot 3 4 5)
cb,cb - asterisk (*)
c,kae - ation - (dot 6)n
ae - b
be - bb - (dot 2 3)
be - be - (dot 2 3)
be,aa - because - (be)c
be,aea - before - (be)f
be,aeb - behind - (be)h
be,l - below - (be)l
be,kae - beneath - (be)n
be,bea - beside (be)s
be,beae - between - (be)t
be,kl - beyond - (be)y
cl - ble - (dot 3 4 5 6)
be,l - blind - bl
ae,lb,l - braille - brl
ae - but
cbe - by - (dot 3 5 6)
aa - c
aa - can
l,aa - cannot - (dot 4 5 6)c
zc - capital sign - (dot 6)
bb - cc - (dot 2 5)
lk - cedilla c - (dot 1 2 3 4 6)
ac - ch - (dot 1 6)
b,ac - character - (dot 5)(ch)
ac - child - (dot 1 6)
ac,kae - children - (ch)n
ac - circumflex letter a - (dot 1 6)
aec - circumflex letter e - (dot 1 2 6)
ak - circumflex letter i - (dot 1 4 6)
al - circumflex letter o - (dot 1 4 5 6)
abe - circumflex letter u - (dot 1 5 6)
bebe,zc - close parenthesis ")"
cbe - close quotation mark (") - (dot 3 5 6)
bb - colon (:) - (dot 2 5)
cc - com - (dot 3 6)
ea - comma - (dot 2)
bb - con - (dot 2 5)
bb,aa,lc - conceive - (con)cv
bb,aa,lc,aeae - conceiving - (con)cvg
aa,aae - could - cd
aae - d
cc,cc - dash (--)
b,aae - day - (dot 5)d
bbe - dd - (dot 2 5 6)
aae,aa,lc - deceive - dcv
zk - decimal point (.) - (dot 4 6)
aae,aa,l - declare - dcl
aae,aa,l,aeae - declaring - dclg
bbe - dis - (dot 2 5 6)
zb,bz - ditto ""
aae - do - (dot 1 4 5)
bebe - dollar sign ($) - (dot 2 3 5 6)
cc,cc,cc,cc - double dash (----)
ab - e
b - ea - (dot 2)
aek - ed - (dot 1 2 4 6)
ab,ba - either - ei
bc - en - (dot 2 6)
be,ab - ence - (dot 5 6)e
bc - enough - (dot 2 6)
ael - er (dot 1 2 4 5 6)
bk - ethel (oe) - (dot 2 4 6)
b,ab - ever - (dot 5)e
ab - every - (dot 1 5)
beb - exclamation mark (!) - (dot 2 3 5)
aea - f
b,aea - father - (dot 5)f
beb - ff - (dot 2 3 5)
aea,ca - first - f(st)
ll - for - (dot 1 2 3 4 5 6)
ca - forward slash (/) - (dot 3 4)
aea,lb - friend - fr
aea - from - (dot 1 2 4)
be,l - ful - (dot 5 6)L
aeae - g
bebe - gg - (dot 2 3 5 6)
aec - gh - (dot 1 2 6)
aeae - go - (dot 1 2 4 5)
aeae,aae - good - gd
lbe - grave letter a - (dot 1 2 3 5 6)
bek - grave letter e - (dot 2 3 4 6)
ca - grave letter i - (dot 3 4)
ck - grave letter o - (dot 3 4 6)
bel - grave letter u - (dot 2 3 4 5 6)
aeae,lb,beae - great - grt
aeb - h
l,aeb - had - (dot 4 5 6)h
aeb - have - (dot 1 2 5)
b,aeb - here - (dot 5)h
aeb,ael,aea - herself - h(er)f
aeb,ka - him - hm
aeb,ka,aea - himself - hmf
bec - his - (dot 2 3 6)
cc - hyphen (-) - (dot 3 6)
ba - i
ba,ka,ka - immediate - imm
cb - in - (dot 3 5)
ck - ing - (dot 3 4 6)
cb,beb - into - (in)(to)
kk - it - (dot 1 3 4 6)
kk - it - x
zk - italic sign - (dot 4 6)
kk,bea - its - xs
kk,aea - itself - xf
be,kl - ity - (dot 5 6)y
bae - j
bae - just - (dot 2 4 5)
k - k
b,k - know - (dot 5)k
k - knowledge - (dot 1 3)
l - l
k,bea - less - (dot 4 6)s
l,lb - letter - Lr
zbe - letter sign - (dot 5 6)
l - like - (dot 1 2 3)
zae - literal index - (dot 4 5)
l,l - little - LL
b,l - lord - (dot 5)L
ka - m
l,ka - many - (dot 4 5 6)m
be,beae - ment - (dot 5 6)t
ka - more - (dot 1 2 4)
b,ka - mother - (dot 5)m
ka,ac - much - m(ch)
ka,ac - must - m(st)
ka,kl,aea - myself - myf
kae - n
b,kae - name - (dot 5)n
kae,ab,aa - necessary - nec
kae,ab,ba - neither - nei
be,bea - ness - (dot 5 6)s
kae - not - (dot 1 3 4 5)
cl - numeral sign - (dot 3 4 5 6)
za - numerical index sign - (dot 4)
kb - o
kb,cbe,aa - o'clock - o'c
lbe - of - (dot 1 2 3 5 6)
b,kb - one - (dot 5)o
b,kb,aea - oneself - (one)f
be,aeae - ong - (dot 5 6)g
zc,bebe - open parenthesis "("
bec - open quotation mark (") - (dot 2 3 6)
aebe - ou - (dot 1 2 5 6)
b,aebe - ought - (dot 5)(ou)
k,aae - ound - (dot 4 6)d
k,beae - ount - (dot 4 6)t
aebe,lb,lc,bea - ourselves - (ou)rvs
aebe - out - (dot 1 2 5 6)
bk - ow - (dot 2 4 6)
la - p
la,aae - paid - pd
b,la - part - (dot 5)p
la - people - (dot 1 2 3 4)
la,ael,aa,lc - perceive - p(er)cv
la,ael,aa,lc,aeae - perceiving - p(er)cvg
la,ael,aeb - perhaps - p(er)h
bbe - period (.) - (dot 2 5 6)
lae - q
b,lae - question - (dot 5)q
bec - question mark (?) - (dot 2 3 6)
lae,k - quick - qk
lae - quite - (dot 1 2 3 4 5)
lb - r
lb - rather - (dot 1 2 3 5)
lb,aae,lc - receive - rcv
lb,aa,lc,aeae - receiving - rcvg
lb,bae,aa - rejoice - rjc
lb,bae,aa,aeae - rekoicing - rjcg
b,lb - right - (dot 5)r
bea - s
bea,aae - said - sd
be - semicolon (;) - (dot 2 3)
ak - sh - (dot 1 4 6)
ak - shall - (dot 1 4 6)
ak,aae - should - (sh)d
cz - single quote (') - (dot 3)
k,kae - sion - (dot 4 6)n
bea - so - (dot 2 3 4)
b,bea - some - (dot 5)s
l,bea - spirit - (dot 4 5 6)s
ca - st - (dot 3 4)
ca - still - (dot 3 4)
bea,ac - such - s(ch)
beae - t
al - th - (dot 1 4 5 6)
beae - that - (dot 2 3 4 5)
bek - the - (dot 2 3 4 6)
l,bek - their - (dot 4 5 6)(the)
bek,ka,lc,bea - themselves - (the)mvs
b,bek - there - (dot 5)(the)
ae,bek - these - (dot 4 5)(the)
al - this - (dot 1 4 5 6)
ae,al - those - (dot 4 5)(th)
b,al - through - (dot 5)(th)
al,kl,aea - thyself - thyf
b,beae - time - (dot 5)t
be,kae - tion - (dot 5 6)n
bb - to - (dot 2 3 5)
beae,aae - today - td
beae,aeae,lb - together - tgr
beae,ka - tomorrow - tm
beae,kae - tonight - tn
kc - u
cae - umlaut letter a - (dot 3 4 5)
aek - umlaut letter e - (dot 1 2 4 6)
ael - umlaut letter i - (dot 1 2 4 5 6)
bk - umlaut letter o - (dot 2 4 6)
aebe - umlaut letter u - (dot 1 2 5 6)
b,kc - under - (dot 5)u
ae,kc - upon - (dot 4 5)u
kc - us - (dot 1 3 6)
lc - v
lc - very - (dot 1 2 3 6)
bl - w
cbe - was - (dot 3 5 6)
bebe - were - (dot 2 3 5 6)
abe - wh - (dot 1 5 6)
b,abe - where - (dot 5)(wh)
abe - which - (dot 1 5 6)
ae,abe - whose - (dot 4 5)(wh)
bl - will - (dot 2 4 5 6)
bel - with - (dot 2 3 4 5 6)
ae,bl - word - (dot 4 5)w
b,bl - work - (dot 5)w
l,bl - world - (dot 4 5 6)w
bl,aae - would - wd
kk - x
kl - y
kl - you - (dot 1 3 4 5 6)
b,kl - young - (dot 5) y
kl,lb - your - yr
kl,lb,aea - yourself - yrf
kl,lb,lc,bea - yourselves - yrvs
kbe - z



a - a
a,aa - according - ac
a,aa,lb - across - acr
a,ae - about - ab
a,ae,lc - above - abv
a,aea - after - af
a,aea,bl - afterward - afw
a,aea,kae - afternoon - afn
a,aeae - again - ag
a,aeae,ca - against - ag(st)
a,l,al - although - al(th)
a,l,beae - altogether - alt
a,l,bl - always - alw
a,l,ka - also - al
a,l,lb - almost - alm
a,l,lb - already - alr
aa - c
aa - can
aa,aae - could - cd
aae - d
aae - do - (dot 1 4 5)
aae,aa,l - declare - dcl
aae,aa,l,aeae - declaring - dclg
aae,aa,lc - deceive - dcv
ab - e
ab - every - (dot 1 5)
ab,ba - either - ei
abe - circumflex letter u - (dot 1 5 6)
abe - wh - (dot 1 5 6)
abe - which - (dot 1 5 6)
ac - ch - (dot 1 6)
ac - child - (dot 1 6)
ac - circumflex letter a - (dot 1 6)
ac,kae - children - (ch)n
ae - b
ae - but
ae,abe - whose - (dot 4 5)(wh)
ae,al - those - (dot 4 5)(th)
ae,bek - these - (dot 4 5)(the)
ae,bl - word - (dot 4 5)w
ae,kc - upon - (dot 4 5)u
ae,lb,l - braille - brl
aea - f
aea - from - (dot 1 2 4)
aea,ca - first - f(st)
aea,lb - friend - fr
aeae - g
aeae - go - (dot 1 2 4 5)
aeae,aae - good - gd
aeae,lb,beae - great - grt
aeb - h
aeb - have - (dot 1 2 5)
aeb,ael,aea - herself - h(er)f
aeb,ka - him - hm
aeb,ka,aea - himself - hmf
aebe - ou - (dot 1 2 5 6)
aebe - out - (dot 1 2 5 6)
aebe - umlaut letter u - (dot 1 2 5 6)
aebe,lb,lc,bea - ourselves - (ou)rvs
aec - circumflex letter e - (dot 1 2 6)
aec - gh - (dot 1 2 6)
aek - ed - (dot 1 2 4 6)
aek - umlaut letter e - (dot 1 2 4 6)
ael - er (dot 1 2 4 5 6)
ael - umlaut letter i - (dot 1 2 4 5 6)
ak - circumflex letter i - (dot 1 4 6)
ak - sh - (dot 1 4 6)
ak - shall - (dot 1 4 6)
ak,aae - should - (sh)d
al - circumflex letter o - (dot 1 4 5 6)
al - th - (dot 1 4 5 6)
al - this - (dot 1 4 5 6)
al,kl,aea - thyself - thyf
b - ea - (dot 2)
b,aae - day - (dot 5)d
b,ab - ever - (dot 5)e
b,abe - where - (dot 5)(wh)
b,ac - character - (dot 5)(ch)
b,aea - father - (dot 5)f
b,aeb - here - (dot 5)h
b,aebe - ought - (dot 5)(ou)
b,al - through - (dot 5)(th)
b,bea - some - (dot 5)s
b,beae - time - (dot 5)t
b,bek - there - (dot 5)(the)
b,bl - work - (dot 5)w
b,k - know - (dot 5)k
b,ka - mother - (dot 5)m
b,kae - name - (dot 5)n
b,kb - one - (dot 5)o
b,kb,aea - oneself - (one)f
b,kc - under - (dot 5)u
b,kl - young - (dot 5) y
b,l - lord - (dot 5)L
b,la - part - (dot 5)p
b,lae - question - (dot 5)q
b,lb - right - (dot 5)r
ba - i
ba,ka,ka - immediate - imm
bae - j
bae - just - (dot 2 4 5)
bb - cc - (dot 2 5)
bb - colon (:) - (dot 2 5)
bb - con - (dot 2 5)
bb - to - (dot 2 3 5)
bb,aa,lc - conceive - (con)cv
bb,aa,lc,aeae - conceiving - (con)cvg
bbe - dd - (dot 2 5 6)
bbe - dis - (dot 2 5 6)
bbe - period (.) - (dot 2 5 6)
bc - en - (dot 2 6)
bc - enough - (dot 2 6)
be - bb - (dot 2 3)
be - be - (dot 2 3)
be - semicolon (;) - (dot 2 3)
be,aa - because - (be)c
be,ab - ence - (dot 5 6)e
be,aea - before - (be)f
be,aeae - ong - (dot 5 6)g
be,aeb - behind - (be)h
be,bea - beside (be)s
be,bea - ness - (dot 5 6)s
be,beae - between - (be)t
be,beae - ment - (dot 5 6)t
be,kae - beneath - (be)n
be,kae - tion - (dot 5 6)n
be,kl - beyond - (be)y
be,kl - ity - (dot 5 6)y
be,l - below - (be)l
be,l - blind - bl
be,l - ful - (dot 5 6)L
bea - s
bea - so - (dot 2 3 4)
bea,aae - said - sd
bea,ac - such - s(ch)
beae - t
beae - that - (dot 2 3 4 5)
beae,aae - today - td
beae,aeae,lb - together - tgr
beae,ka - tomorrow - tm
beae,kae - tonight - tn
beb - exclamation mark (!) - (dot 2 3 5)
beb - ff - (dot 2 3 5)
bebe - dollar sign ($) - (dot 2 3 5 6)
bebe - gg - (dot 2 3 5 6)
bebe - were - (dot 2 3 5 6)
bebe,zc - close parenthesis ")"
bec - his - (dot 2 3 6)
bec - open quotation mark (") - (dot 2 3 6)
bec - question mark (?) - (dot 2 3 6)
bek - grave letter e - (dot 2 3 4 6)
bek - the - (dot 2 3 4 6)
bek,ka,lc,bea - themselves - (the)mvs
bel - grave letter u - (dot 2 3 4 5 6)
bel - with - (dot 2 3 4 5 6)
bk - ethel (oe) - (dot 2 4 6)
bk - ow - (dot 2 4 6)
bk - umlaut letter o - (dot 2 4 6)
bl - w
bl - will - (dot 2 4 5 6)
bl,aae - would - wd
c,kae - ation - (dot 6)n
c,kl - ally - (dot 6)y
ca - forward slash (/) - (dot 3 4)
ca - grave letter i - (dot 3 4)
ca - st - (dot 3 4)
ca - still - (dot 3 4)
cae - ar - (dot 3 4 5)
cae - ash (ae) - (dot 3 4 5)
cae - umlaut letter a - (dot 3 4 5)
cb - in - (dot 3 5)
cb,beb - into - (in)(to)
cb,cb - asterisk (*)
cbe - by - (dot 3 5 6)
cbe - close quotation mark (") - (dot 3 5 6)
cbe - was - (dot 3 5 6)
cc - com - (dot 3 6)
cc - hyphen (-) - (dot 3 6)
cc,cc - dash (--)
cc,cc,cc,cc - double dash (----)
ck - grave letter o - (dot 3 4 6)
ck - ing - (dot 3 4 6)
cl - ble - (dot 3 4 5 6)
cl - numeral sign - (dot 3 4 5 6)
cl,a - (#1)
cl,aa - (#3)
cl,aae - (#4)
cl,ab - (#5)
cl,ae - (#2)
cl,aea - (#6)
cl,aeae - (#7)
cl,aeb - (#8)
cl,ba - (#9)
cl,bae - (#0)
cz - single quote (') - (dot 3)
ea - comma - (dot 2)
k - k
k - knowledge - (dot 1 3)
k,aae - ound - (dot 4 6)d
k,ab - ance - (dot 4 6)e
k,bea - less - (dot 4 6)s
k,beae - ount - (dot 4 6)t
k,kae - sion - (dot 4 6)n
ka - m
ka - more - (dot 1 2 4)
ka,ac - much - m(ch)
ka,ac - must - m(st)
ka,kl,aea - myself - myf
kae - n
kae - not - (dot 1 3 4 5)
kae,ab,aa - necessary - nec
kae,ab,ba - neither - nei
kb - o
kb,cbe,aa - o'clock - o'c
kbe - as - (dot 1 3 5 6)
kbe - as - z
kbe - z
kc - u
kc - us - (dot 1 3 6)
kk - it - (dot 1 3 4 6)
kk - it - x
kk - x
kk,aea - itself - xf
kk,bea - its - xs
kl - y
kl - you - (dot 1 3 4 5 6)
kl,lb - your - yr
kl,lb,aea - yourself - yrf
kl,lb,lc,bea - yourselves - yrvs
l - l
l - like - (dot 1 2 3)
l,aa - cannot - (dot 4 5 6)c
l,aeb - had - (dot 4 5 6)h
l,bea - spirit - (dot 4 5 6)s
l,bek - their - (dot 4 5 6)(the)
l,bl - world - (dot 4 5 6)w
l,ka - many - (dot 4 5 6)m
l,l - little - LL
l,lb - letter - Lr
la - p
la - people - (dot 1 2 3 4)
la,aae - paid - pd
la,ael,aa,lc - perceive - p(er)cv
la,ael,aa,lc,aeae - perceiving - p(er)cvg
la,ael,aeb - perhaps - p(er)h
lae - q
lae - quite - (dot 1 2 3 4 5)
lae,k - quick - qk
lb - r
lb - rather - (dot 1 2 3 5)
lb,aa,lc,aeae - receiving - rcvg
lb,aae,lc - receive - rcv
lb,bae,aa - rejoice - rjc
lb,bae,aa,aeae - rekoicing - rjcg
lbe - grave letter a - (dot 1 2 3 5 6)
lbe - of - (dot 1 2 3 5 6)
lc - v
lc - very - (dot 1 2 3 6)
lk - and - (dot 1 2 3 4 6)
lk - cedilla c - (dot 1 2 3 4 6)
ll - acute letter e - (dot 1 2 3 4 5 6)
ll - for - (dot 1 2 3 4 5 6)
za - numerical index sign - (dot 4)
zae - literal index - (dot 4 5)
zb,bz - ditto ""
zbe - letter sign - (dot 5 6)
zc - capital sign - (dot 6)
zc,bebe - open parenthesis "("
zk - decimal point (.) - (dot 4 6)
zk - italic sign - (dot 4 6)
Comments